POVERTY REDUCTION POLICIES AND UNEMPLOYMENT THROUGH THE DISTRICT AKARAWANG
PROGRAM TRAINING ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND CAPITAL ASSISTANCE TRAINING POST
Maybe it is not foreign to our ears, when heard Kemiskina and Unemployment . From colonial times until now, Poverty and Unemployment can not be resolved by konperhensip, more so after the monetary crisis, the number of poor and unemployment is growing. The question is why Poverty and unemployment are still growing Suber in this beloved country, and we know that the ideal of independence of the Republic of Indonesia as stated in the Preamble to the Constitution (Constitution) of the Republic of Indonesia Year 1945 is a free berkehidupan nationalities, united, sovereign , just, and prosperous. Related to that, was composed of the National Objectives of the establishment of government, namely to protect the nation and the entire country of Indonesia, promote the general welfare, the intellectual life of the nation, and joined implement world order.
The question above is not intended to find what went wrong or who is wrong, but to remind our nation that Indonesia has a noble ideals, which every citizen is obliged to embody the ideals mentioned, namely the creation of masyarakata the Fair and Makmur .
Independence that has been seized with difficulty, and now it can we achieve must be maintained and filled with a just and democratic development and implemented gradually and continuously.
In order to realize the ideals and national objectives and provide direction for implementation of development in order to work effectively, efficiently, and in accordance with the targets, then the policy is required that is able to realize its ideals and objectives.
The most important and we must think and we are doing together is to find the root problem of poverty and unemployment. From the root of the problem is we can unravel the various complex issues that are found solving the problem.
The essence of development is the effort made to improve the welfare of the community. In this case, placing the direction of view of development is based on the paradigm that underlies the policy makers in a country to be implemented. Development of Indonesia's development was more influenced by the theory of economic growth are at risk on both the development gap between regions, and between the rich and the poor. To that end, in a development, there is a negative impact in the form of poverty and unemployment are factors that must be resolved through development scheme, not a separate part of the joint development
When viewed from the development progress in Indonesia in the early 1970s and 1980s, then the function of "state building" (developmental state) is the choice of development models implemented at the time. Mengedepakna development with economic growth to be the solution to overcome the social and political issues Indonesian nation faced at that time. Impacts that arise with that model increasingly tinginnya disparity of development, because the assumption of trickle-down effect was not running perfectly. In the mid-1980s until the 2000s, the characteristics of the country began to shift into country development minimalist, the state's role in the economy withdrawn, reduced, or eliminated. The strong liberalization in many areas to make the free market and institutional mechanisms are considered as perfect which can correct yourself. Privatization, deregulation, and liberalization became the key words in making privatization of these sectors public services in sectors such as banking, electricity, water, education, and health. As a result, the negative impacts of development that occurred in previous models more and more impoverished Indonesian families, schools are expensive, difficult to reach health, and employment is smaller than the number of job seekers.
This is evidenced by the still struggling with the high level of poverty. The problem of poverty into social problems which until now has not be solved like a vicious circle. Results of 2006 BPS data show the poverty rate in Indonesia and even tends to increase each period, the number of population under poverty line in March 2006 reached 39.05 million (17.75%), increased by 3.95 million people from poverty in March 2005 amounted to 35.1 million (15.97%). With the increasing poverty rate then the other social issues as the impact of poverty is also increasing, such as: employment problems, low levels of education, rising crime, growing social conflicts between communities, and increasingly poor public access to the necessities of life. In addition to poverty figures presented by the BPS, the views of the Human Development Index (HDI) or the Human Development Index in Indonesia is still very low, compared with human qualities in other countries in the world. Based on the Human Development Report 2006 using 2002 data, Indonesia ranks only 108 of 177 countries, this implies a low human productivity which in 2006 ranked 60th of 61 countries in 2006 in the World Competitiveness Year Book.
However, the problems of poverty and unemployment as the impact of development is a problem with all elements of the nation who should be addressed. Therefore, efforts to no longer rely on natural resources alone, but through improving the human role in the development occupies a vital strategic function. Especially in the era of regional autonomy is in part the move was in the hands of local governments. The role of regions will be more dominant and strategically in the process of national development.
B. National and International Mandate In Poverty Reduction.
At the opening of the 1945 Constitution mandates that, to form a Government of Indonesia that protect the whole Indonesian nation and the entire country of Indonesia and to promote the general welfare, the intellectual life of the nation, and joined implement world order based on freedom, lasting peace and social justice. From the opening of the 1945 Constitution, indicates that the factor of community welfare is a priority the establishment of the State of Indonesia.
This is in line with the efforts of Indonesia as one member of the United Nations (UN), to come participate in efforts to eliminate poverty is the greatest global challenge facing the world today. It has been agreed at the Summit (Summit) Millennium in the United Nations (UN), New York in 2000 which establishes the efforts of halving poverty in the world as the Millennium Development Goals (Millennium Development Goals) to be achieved by 2015. The objective is implemented through an 8-lane targets covering:
- Eradicate poverty and hunger
- Achieve universal primary education for all
- Promote gender equality and women's empowerment
- Reduce child mortality
- Improve maternal health
- Combat HIV / AIDS, malaria and other infectious diseases
- Ensure environmental sustainability
- Develop a global partnership for development
Commitment to goals and targets agreed by Government premises which is also signed the document Implementation Plan for Sustainable Development Summit, which was also signed by the President, to become a reference in carrying out development in Indonesia at the Summit (Summit) Sustainable Development in Johannesburg , South Africa, in September 2002. Thus, the consensus of Indonesia and as well as international commitments to eradicate poverty within the framework of the implementation of sustainable development. These factors require emerintah role and all the countries together with the various elements of society bear the main responsibility for realizing sustainable development and poverty reduction at the same time not later than 2015.
For that, through Act No. 17 of 2007 on the National Long-Term development Plan 2005 - 2025, which is expected to:
(A) support coordination antarpelaku in achieving national goals of development,
(B) ensure the creation of integration, synchronization and synergy both between regions, antarruang, intertemporal, antarfungsi government or between central and local government,
(C) ensure linkages and consistency between planning, budgeting, implementation and monitoring;
(D) ensure the achievement of efficient resource use, effective, equitable and sustainable, and
(E) optimize community participation. Besides the Act, the policy of the president through the Presidential Regulation No. 7 of 2005 on National Medium Term Development Plan (Development Plan) for 2004-2009 includes three of our national development agenda, the agenda of creating a safe and peaceful Indonesia; agenda of creating a just and democratic Indonesia ; and agenda of improving people's welfare. National agenda, which is expected to be realized in all regions, through the Medium Term Development Plan Area (RPJMD).
In this regard, the efforts to reduce poverty has been launched by the central government through the National Community Empowerment Program (PNPM) so that overlapping government activities can be avoided and ultimately the impact of government expenditure towards poverty reduction can be maximized. In PNPM program as it has started the last few years, the central government in partnership with Local Government. Similar patterns would be increased again in 2008. The hope in addition to improving local planning processes (bottom-up planning), this partnership program will provide a focused channel for local government which is still having trouble government spending is directed.
National Community Empowerment Program Mandiri (PNPM Mandiri) is a government program to alleviate poverty and decrease unemployment rates based on participation and community empowerment. This is the background that there is still a gap between the achievements and objectives in improving the welfare of the people, namely poverty and unemployment rates are still quite large. Government to target measures to reduce poverty by the year 2009 of 8.2% and lower the unemployment rate up to 5.1%.
One effort to reduce poverty and decrease unemployment rate is to launch a National Community Empowerment Program Mandiri. This program is a continuation of what has been submitted by the President of the Republic of Indonesia at the State Address on 16 August 2006 and was officially launched by the President on April 30, 2007 in Palu of Central Sulawesi Province,
PNPM Mandiri is an integration and expansion of programs of community-based poverty reduction that has been and is running. Integration is done by combining programs that have proven effective, in the year 2007 through the District Development Programme in rural areas managed by the Directorate General of PMD MOHA and the Urban Poverty Program (P2KP) in urban areas managed by the Directorate General of Cipta Karya Department of Public Works. Furthermore, in subsequent years will be increased to the entire program of community-based poverty reduction.
C. Diagnosis of Poverty and unemployment.
To facilitate the diagnosis, the simplest thing is to find the cause of why they are poor. The most likely answer is: Because do not have the revenue (income) that can meet their needs. If we continue with the next question, why they do not have sufficient income to make ends meet, then the answer becomes very complex, perhaps because he did not have a job (unemployed), perhaps his minimal wages, maybe work is not fixed, may not have venture capital, may not have business skills, maybe lazy, maybe and maybe-maybe more. Of the various possibilities that we can do only one, which gives hope for change from the way of thinking can not be a way of thinking can , of how berbipikir not be the way of thinking completely as possible. Changes in patterns of thinking, will lead to changes in the pattern to act and behave.
D. The concept of Community Empowerment in Poverty Reduction and Employment Expansion
D.1. Concept of Poverty and Unemployment
Poverty is characterized by lack of access to goods, services, assets and opportunities is important that the right of every person. Each person should be free from hunger, should be able to live in peace, and must have access to basic education and the services of primary health care. Poor families need to sustain themselves by their labor and get rewarded fairly and should receive the necessary protection against external shocks. In addition, individuals and communities are also poor and tend to stay poor if they are not empowered to participate in making decisions that affect their lives.
In the context of poverty reduction efforts, it takes a development paradigm shift from top down to bottom up, by giving the public role as the main actor or the subject of development while the government as a facilitator. Bottom-up process will provide space for villagers to participate in the plan, determine needs, make decisions, carry out, to evaluate development.
This condition will be visible if the place of the poor in a respectable position, giving them space to develop local participation and initiative, so the concept of the poor as beneficiaries of the project is not too relevant to be discussed in the concept of human development. There are several dimensions related to the understanding of poverty, whether that view of the dimensions of material welfare, and social welfare. The concept that puts poverty divided into two types, such as that delivered Suwondo (1982:2) that poverty is divided into absolute poverty (absolute proverty), namely: individuals or groups who can not meet their basic needs, even the minimum physical requirements, and relative poverty (relative proverty) that emphasize the inequality of opportunities and capabilities among the layers of society to obtain goods and services in enjoying life. Broader understanding of poverty conveyed by John Friedman (Ala, 1996:4) states that poverty as inequality to accumulate social bases of power, namely the ability to master the strategic opportunities that could affect the social, economic, and political.
From the definition of poverty is the various factors that cause poverty are also generally caused more by natural factors and areas where natural conditions are not capable of supporting life of its citizens, as well as structural factors in which poverty arising from the formation because the structure of society is full of injustice. Meanwhile, Arif Budiman (2000: 289) distinguishes poverty into two, namely: cultural poverty, namely poverty as a result of cultural character and work ethic are low, and the structural poverty that is the result of an unbalanced structure. In this case, the causes of poverty, especially poverty becomes structurally more study materials than natural factors. And if you see the current technological developments, the study of natural factors can still do engineering is possible by nature to be a region that has economic value for society. Meanwhile, structural poverty-related studies by Selo Sumardjan (Alfie et.al, 1980: 8) argued that structural poverty is not only manifested by lack of food but also because of lack of healthy residential facilities, lack of education, lack of communication with the outside world, even protection law.
With a lot of sense and causes of poverty put forward by the experts, the criteria for measuring poor person can say or do not need the right size and are generally accepted. This is causing the difference in assessment of the boundaries of poverty lines, so the problem of poverty became very normative. Related to the implementation of the PNPM Mandiri, there are several sizes that approach as presented by Emil Salim (1984:42-43) that there are five characteristics of poverty which include: 1) do not have the factors of production, 2) low educational level, 3) do not have the possibility to acquire production assets with its own strength, 4) mostly live in villages, and 5) many live in the city young and without skill.
Therefore, alignments of the community in the direction of development policy is necessary in addressing problems of poverty and unemployment. This was conveyed by Sri Mulyani (Soetrisno ed. 1995:2) asserts that the policy that is able to answer the problem of poverty by maintaining the growth is by opening up the possibility of the poor to participate in the growth process itself. With this policy, the efforts to increase access of poor people to obtain, utilize, and manage the resources available.
As one step penanggulan poverty then the process of public participation at least three stages starting from planning, pelaksaanaan, and utilization. Involvement can be viewed from: mental and emotional involvement, willingness to contribute / or volunteer help, and the responsibility. Therefore, Y. Slamet (1993:3) gives the sense that as an active and meaningful involvement of the mass of the population at different levels, a) in the process of forming the decision to determine the goals of society, b) implementation of programs or projects are voluntary, and c) utilization of the results of a program or a project.
D.2. Linkages Between Poverty and Unemployment
From the definition of poverty is then to mengindentikan that poor people say mean unemployment can not be done. This is due to unemployment is a situation caused by the factor of people who work under optimum capacity (unemployment terselebung), and those factors are actually able and willing to work, but do not get jobs at all (full unemployment). To that end, efforts to reduce poverty and unemployment is to do the distribution of income through the creation adequate wage employment for community groups who are poor.
With the employment expansion efforts will need the support of various policy and regulatory actions in both the economic and social fields are reaching further. Therefore, the problem ketanaga work should always be taken into account as one of the main element in any formulation of national economic development strategy oriented to poverty reduction efforts.
To that end, participation is only possible with a good run, when departing from the awareness and active community initiative. Consciousness and this initiative will appear when people have the power and high bargaining power to access, manage, and utilize surrounding resources optimally. Participation is only possible if there is a balance between power / bargaining position is expected to become the main actors and the government's main Development. In this context, empowerment (empowerment) become the key to success in increasing the capacity of society to participate actively not only be mobilized.
D.3. Community Empowerment for Poverty Reduction In
Community empowerment is a process whereby society-especially those who lack access to resources-driven development to increase self-reliance in developing their livelihood. In principle, the community examines the key challenges and propose their development activities designed to address this problem. This activity then becomes the basis of local programs, regional and even national. The main target of this approach is that marginalized groups in society. However, this does not mean to deny the participation of other groups. Community empowerment is a continuous cycle process, the participatory process in which community members work together in formal and informal groups to share knowledge and experience and try to achieve common goals.
Develop a community empowerment approach will increase the effectiveness and efficiency of resource use development that increasingly rare. Government programs such as KDP-based empowerment has given a lot of experience in reducing costs for a job with the same qualities that carried non-empowerment program. This approach will improve the relevance of the development program (government) to local communities and improve the sustainability, by encouraging a sense of belonging and community responsibility. In addition, this approach also has contributed in improving the performance of government staff and customer satisfaction for government services.
Empowerment is defined as helping communities to be able to help themselves (help people to help themselves). Empowerment is done by giving space and the capacity of communities to meet their needs and their rights, develop the potential and local initiatives, activate the role of the community and build community self-reliance. Empowerment in the strict sense is not limited to providing input material or financial assistance but provides the opportunity and ability to the community at large to access resources and mendayagunakannya to improve their lives. In this context, community empowerment should be done through three main aspects, namely:
create an atmosphere or climate that allows the development potential or community-owned resources (enabling). Here the point of departure is the recognition that every human being, every society has the potential to be developed. Empowerment is an effort to build a power that, by encouraging (encourage), motivate and raise awareness (awareness) will be its potential, and seeks to develop it.
strengthen the potential or community-owned power (empowerment) through the provision of inputs in the form of financial assistance, infrastructure development, both physical (roads, irrigation, electricity) and social (schools, health), and development funding agencies, research and marketing in the Region, and opening access to the various opportunities (opportunities) that will make people become more empowered.
empower contains also the sense to protect the community through pro-poor community to prevent competition that is not balanced by strong because kekurangberdayaan face, and it does not mean isolation or cover of the interaction. Empowerment of people do not make people dependent on a variety of programs (charity), because basically all enjoyed what must be produced on one's own, the results can be exchanged with other parties.
Empowerment is needed to enhance society's bargaining position by increasing its capacity. There are at least three basic capacity needed for it, namely:
First: the voice (voice), access and control of citizens on governance and development that affect their everyday lives. First, the sound is right and the actions citizens express their aspirations, ideas, needs, interests and demands of the immediate community and government policy. The goal is to influence government policy and determine a common agenda to manage our collective and independent.
In the context of participatory development planning, the sound can be delivered by the community through consensus-building planning meetings. Here is the community to propose the idea of development which depart from their real needs, set priorities, and development decisions. However, systems development with top-down paradigm in the past has reduced capacity, so that people felt uncomfortable or did not dare to put forward his idea in the official forums even if given a chance. Here is needed a process through the facilitation of learning, motivation, education, and advocacy on a continual menurus to restore public confidence and improve its ability to convey a clear and systematic aspiration-based needs.
Second, access to means of space and community capacity to enter into the arena of governance, namely influence and determine policy and actively involved in managing public resources including public services. Access will be the arena of common ground between citizens and government. Governments are required to open space and provide citizens access public services on citizens, especially marginalized groups. Instead residents together proactively identify problems, needs and potentials as well as formulate ideas and develop potential solutions systematically. The Government must respond to the idea of citizens so that it can formulate its vision and policy together with based on partnership and trust.
Third, the control of citizens of the community environment and political processes associated with the government. We know the internal control (self-control) and external controls. That is, control not only includes the capacity of community supervision (monitoring) of policies (implementation and risk) and government action, but also the ability of citizens to assess critically and reflectively against the risks of their actions. Self-control is very important because the public had long been in the context of a chain of oppression: that of oppressing the lower, while under each other's most oppressive to the side. External control means that allows people to resist exploitation from above, while self-control is intended to avoid the chains of oppression among the people, as he wants to build social responsibility, commitment and competence of citizens to everything that affects their everyday lives.
E. PROBLEM FORMULATION
Poverty and Unemployment is a chronic disease of chronic, treatment and prevention required a planned, measured and targeted.
Planning to reduce poverty and unemployment starts from a change of mind, way of looking at (see) a problem, through education and way of acting through exercises. Education and training (TRAINING) meant as a means to change ways of thinking, way of looking at, and how to act, hereinafter referred to results of training, implemented in the form of real activity, namely business to improve, through knowledge and skills penambahana insight.
If the insight and knowledge and adequate skills, so by itself it bears unemployment status will change into the people who create on or who we know Entrepreneurship. When the soul Entrepreneurship has been formed, then in turn be transformed into intrapreneurship (Wira entrepreneurs), the poor status will change to established.
F. Experience in Community Empowerment for Poverty Reduction
In Indonesia, a participatory development trends that have a positive impact on society have been widely used in 1994, where many programs or community empowerment project is launched in each sector, such as: IDT, CCP, P3DT, P4K, and others. This has led to much confusion and confusion because each program has the names and sizes vary.Theresome reasons which cause these conditions occur, which among others include:
a) each program has a mechanism of poverty reduction planning, budgeting, and implementation of its own,
b) each donor has its own program name with the model approach is also different,
c) each department / non-program has its own name with the model approach is also different. This condition menibulkan ketidakefektifnya inefficiency and community empowerment programs in poverty reduction. For example: in 2005, 42 Poverty reduction programs implemented by 17 government agencies, both department and non department. This is an attempt to harmonisasikan dintegrasikan in one container and the National Community Empowerment Program (PNPM).
However, on that basis show some development model that uses community development approaches that emphasize participatory management. Several models of community empowerment program that has the advantages:
1) Increased ability of communities and local governments in managing the activities of rural development;
2) Participation and non-governmental organizations in the planning and implementation of activities is quite high;
3) The results and impact, particularly in poverty reduction is real enough;
4) The cost of the construction activity is relatively cheaper than if performed by another party;
5) Communities are fully involved in planning, implementing, and controlling;
6) Transparency in decision-making and strong financial management.
In addition to the above advantages, the empowerment of communities in poverty reduction made by the government also has various disadvantages such as:
1) Not fully follow the mechanisms and procedures that already exist and are still to be ad hoc;
2) Community participation and the institutionalization of society tend to be mobilization;
3) The involvement of local governments is still lacking (ego-sectoral)
4) Dependence on technical assistance from consultants is still big;
5) The integration program similar development is still weak in terms of funds, time, and management mechanisms.
From these considerations, the advantages and disadvantages Development Program (KDP) as the embryo of PNPM Rural attempt to answer the fundamental problems of society, which is providing employment for poor people (to overcome the problem of unemployment) and also increase revenue for the group of poor people (poverty reduction .) From the characteristics of programs, activities chosen by residents of the village or district that elected general is infrastructure development. Infrastructure development is also expected to provide a greater multiplier effect by lowering transaction costs and marketing to enable a broader business opportunities and decrease the cost of living.
From the results of independent evaluation shows the program has been tested, in terms of goal attainment and efficiency. For example, savings from these programs reach an average of 56%. This means that if a project is built with this program successfully reduced costs by 56% compared with similar programs established by the government. The results of the independent auditors audit state funds found deviations less than 1%.
Externality impacts (additional) second program is relatively large. Example of the results of independent evaluation, because this program is open the menu (have the freedom to choose) that actually selected and implemented by the community, so this program is one of the direct implementation of bottom-up planning process. In some districts, the KDP model has been adopted in the manufacture of planning at the district level. Transparency and public involvement from planning to implementation has also fostered social capital and reducing the conflicts that occur at the grass roots and a new capital for the creation of national integration. In addition, this program has been identified as one model for poverty reduction. No fewer than 30 countries including China have been visiting and applying a similar program by using the pattern of PPK as a model of participatory development.
G. PROBLEM SOLVING (SOLUTION)
To overcome poverty and unemployment, have created a variety of courses: First change the way of thinking, either change the way people think poor and unemployed, as well as how to think rich people and government.
How to change the mindset of the poor:
1. That the Poverty and unemployment are not taktir that must be accepted and swallowed raw.
2. That the Poverty and unemployment are Shame (This is embarrassing) that must be removed and kept away.
3. That poverty and unemployment are occupiers who must be fought and eradicated.
4. That poverty and unemployment is a disease that must be treated.
5. That poverty and unemployment is a disease that can be cured.
6. That the Lord as the creator wants his servants to use the existing potential and available for free from poverty and unemployment.
7. That the Lord requires to work hard and give rewards to people who are willing and able to work hard.
8. That God will give punishment to those who are lazy in the world of kemiskianan and unemployment, are diakherat be put into hell.
9. That laziness is a disease mentioned in the prayer (Nauju bika minal buhli wal Kasali).
How to change the mindset of people rich and the Government:
1. That kemiskian and unemployment is a calamity, and the rich and the government berkewajiaban help people affected by disasters.
2. That means helping the poor and jobless not by giving fish but gave place bait hook and provide Imembina).
3. That the people are poor and unemployed brothers abandoned by the existing system, then it is obligatory for the rich and the government help those who undermined the system.
4. That being the rich and the government (the ruling) is the grace (favor)
5. That the Lord commanded to Sukur delicious.
6. That way nitmat Sukur is to provide convenience and assistance to people mikin and unemployment.
7. That the Lord threaten people who do not mensukuri delicious with a painful punishment.
8. That the promise of God never lies.
9. That helped the poor and the unemployed will get two rewards, namely the world and diakherat.
Both do the coaching business, through entrepreneurship TRAINING. All three provide venture capital assistance of Adar of the poor and unemployed can be tried and the last shall administer the business, business for the poor and unemployed can walk properly.
H. FEE REQUIRED
To organize TRAINING kewira company by one-time activity fee is required as follows:
Printed Name Volume Unit price Total
ATK 40 sets 50.000 2000000
Shirt 40 sets 30.000 1200000
Certificate 40 5000 300000
Snack 2 x 40 x 6 days 5000 2400000
Eat 2 x 40 x 3 x 6 15.000 21600000
Documentation 1 set 1.000.000 1000000
Keynote Speaker 6 people expert 2.000.000 12000000
Rental Building 1 1.000.000 1000000
Sound system 1 500.000 500000
Banner 5 200.000 1000000
Change Management 40 sets 25.000 1500000
Motivation and Interest in business 40 sets 25.000 1500000
Enterplanner Shif 40 sets 25.000 1500000
HR Management 40 sets 25.000 1500000
Entrepreneurship 40 sets 25.000 1500000
Business Administration 40 sets 25.000 1500000
Participant Allowances 40x6 30.000 7200000
Venture Capital Starter 40 people 5.000.000 200000000
Amount: Three hundred twenty four million dollars.
Irregularities and one target and still strong mentally CCN make poverty reduction programs have never really able to alleviate poverty. Therefore we need to put forward a new strategy of community participation. This challenge which should be addressed to implement good governance in the era of regional autonomy to reduce poverty. It is characterized by a lack of transparency by giving the public broader access to public information. Therefore, community participation, including programming and decision making, and the next feature is the accountability that makes the public is entitled to demand accountability of local governments. The result of all this besides that for the welfare of society, especially poor communities in accordance with the 1945 Constitution Commission and international commitments that have been agreed through the Millennium Development Goals as a target should be achieved in 2015.
For that, with the change of paradigm which tends to emphasize the function of focusing on human development required fundamental changes, such as issues of policy, regulatory, and public access to decision-making process. Meanwhile, several initiatives in poverty reduction strategy by promoting the mainstreaming of poverty reduction through the formulation of strategies penangulangan poverty in the regions should be supported by a respite assistance mechanisms of the various parties that focus on human development of Indonesia.
Policy paper Bibliography of Unemployment and Poverty Reduction and Community Empowerment Through the National Programme
Blog with ID 26 250 None
Ala, Andro Bayo, 1996. Poverty and Strategies to Combat Poverty,Yogyakarta, Liberty.
Arief, Saeful, 2000. Refuse developmentalism,Yogyakarta, Student Reader.
Sumardjan, Selo, 1980. Structural Poverty and Development Preface in Alfie (at. Al), Structural Poverty, An Events Calendar,Jakarta, YIIS.
Suwondo, Fleas, 1998. Social Structure and Poverty, Slatiga, Yayasan Bina Dharma.
Salim, Emil, 1984. Planning Development and Equity Income,Jakarta, Nucleus Idayu Press.
Soetrino, R, 2001. Community empowerment and liberation efforts of Poverty,Yogyakarta, Canisius